Biżuteria

Dzieje biżuterii


Biżuteria wykonywana jest przeważnie ze  srebra, kamieni szlachetnych, złota i platyny. Jej przeznaczeniem jest ozdabianie szyj, palców, rąk i głów jej posiadaczy. Są to ozdoby artystyczne, nie rzadko porównywane do dzieł sztuki za które trzeba zapłacić nie raz  potężne kwoty. Biżuteria tworzona jest przez złotników, oraz jubilerów, którzy tworzą drobne błyskotki ku uciesze przede wszystkim pań.

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Najstarsza biżuterie datuje się na ok. XXII tysiące lat temu. Pierwotni ludzie ozdabiali swe ciała tym co wydawało im się na ówczesne warunki eleganckie i ozdobne. Wykonywali więc swoją ?biżuterię? z kości i zębów zwierząt, muszli, oraz kamieni. Surowce te również były poddawane szlifowaniu oraz rzeźbieniu w celu nadania im jak najpiękniejszych i niepowtarzalnych form. Z czasem miedz i żelazo wyparły poprzednie surowce i to one stały się głównym materiałem do produkcji biżuterii. Trzeba przyznać, że przyczyniło się to do wytwarzania coraz piękniejszych wzorów biżuterii, gdyż nowe surowce znacznie łatwiej poddawały się obróbce. Najstarsze złote i srebrne ozdoby liczą sobie VI tyś. lat. Wykorzystywane były w obrządkach religijnych, magii, oraz były najlepszym miernikiem zamożności.
W starożytnym Egipcie największą karierę zrobiły amulety mające za zadanie chronić przed nieszczęściami i chorobami. Najpopularniejszymi ozdobami były noszone na rekach i nogach bransoletki i przesadnie szerokie naszyjniki. Ubodzy nosili biżuterię zrobiona z fajansu, szkła.
Słynna biżuteria Grecja datowane jest na okres V- IV w.p.n.e. Nowością były ozdoby ze złoconego brązu. Naszyjniki kształtem przypominały amforki i głowy zwierząt, natomiast bransoletki- węża. Dopiero po pewnym czasie zaczęto dodawać do biżuterii kamienie szlachetne, które stanowiły podstawę w tworzeniu biżuterii rzymskiej. To właśnie w starożytnym  Rzymie mają swój początek diamenty. Bardzo popularne były również szmaragdy. Ozdoby ze złota nosili jedynie wysoko postawieni urzędnicy państwowi, reszta musiała się zadowolić pierścieniami z żelaza.
Średniowiecze całą wartość biżuterii skierowało na ich religijne znaczenie. Charakterystyczne pierścienie z załączonym niebieskim szafirem były przeznaczone jedynie dla kardynałów i biskupów, gdyż kolor kamienia wskazywał na skierowanie umysłu i pragnień w kierunku nieba. Złoto przeznaczone było dla władców, gdyż świadczyło o roztropności, mądrości i jasnym umyśle monarchy.

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Zdecydowany rozwój złotnictwa z uwagi na spopularyzowanie wzorników nastąpił między XVI a XVII w.  W tym okresie diament został okrzyknięty królem klejnotów. Dla mężczyzn najważniejszymi i w zasadzie jedynymi ozdobami stały się ordery i odznaczenia, które również były obfite w brylanty. Naszyjniki, pierścionki , bransoletki i kolczyki stały się domeną pań.  XIX w. odznaczył się wprowadzeniem kompletów biżuterii na które składały się kolczyki, diadem, brożka bransolety i naszyjnik. Z kolei  w  XX w. platyna stała się najcenniejszym surowcem z którego wykonywano biżuterię. Jej wielkim atutem jest kolor doskonale pasujący do diamentów.

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